Phalaris minor Retz. - POACEAE - Monocotyledon

Common name : Canarygrass, littleseed canarygrass
Common name in Hindi : Mandusi, kanaki, guli danda
Common name in Urdu : Dumbi sittee, sittee booti

Habit - © Juliana PROSPERI - Cirad The inflorescence is at the top of a long peduncle  - © Juliana PROSPERI - Cirad Dense oblong inflorescence - © Juliana PROSPERI - Cirad Detail of the inflorescence - © Juliana PROSPERI - Cirad Ligule membranous  - © Juliana PROSPERI - Cirad Leaf avec visible midrib - © Juliana PROSPERI - Cirad

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Diagnostic characters Biology Ecology and distribution Nuisance Weed control Botany Uses/Remark References

Diagnostic characters :

Bird’s seed grass is an annual or bienal tufted grass that can grow up to 1 m tall with erected stems. The leaves with a linear acuminate blade have a leaf sheath subcoriaceous to pubescent. The inflorescence at the top of a peduncle is a dense oblong panicle. It is found as a major weed of wheat cultures.

Biology :

This grass reproduces by seeds.

Ecology and distribution :

P. minor grows on sandy alluvial soils and tolerate saline soils. It is present in tropical and temperate regions of the world. In Asia, bird’s seed grass grows in the Middle East, Pakistan, Indian subcontinent, Indonesia and Australia.

Nuisance :

It is found as major weed not only in wheat cultures but also in gram, lentils and barley crops. Also frequently found in winter vegetable, oilseeds and fodder crops. In Punjab region of Pakistan P. minor is the most notorious and harmful among all winter annual weeds. Due to abundant use of herbicides it is loosing its feet against wheat in some places of Punjab.

Weed control :

- Chemical
Fortunately this weed is very susceptible to herbicides.
In India, post-emergence application of Isoproturon at 1.0 kg/ha, sulfosulfuron at 25 g/ha, fenoxaprop at 100 g/ha, chlodinafop at 60 g/ha, pendimethalin at 1.5 kg/ha.
In Pakistan, following herbicides may be used for its effective control. Stomp 330 E at 3 l/ha, Isoproturon 50 FW at 2 l/ha, Puma S 75 FW at 1.2 l/ha or Topik 15 WP at 250 gm/ha in pre-emergence and early post-emergence, 25 to 30 days after germination of weed.

Botany :

Annual or bienal tufted grass, 25 to 70cm and can grows up to 1 m tall.
Fibrous roots.
Erect, geniculate, fistular, profusely branched tillers at the base.
Linear acuminate, ligule membranous truncate and fringed; leaf sheath subcoriaceous to pubescent.
Dense oblong or ovate panicle, 2 to 10cm long and 1 to 2cm wide. Spikelets one flowered, subsessile.
Greyish black caryopsis, very shattering behaviour and huge seed production capacity.

Uses/Remark :

References :

- Häfliger E., Scholz H. 1980. Grass Weeds 2. Documenta Ciba-Geigy. Switzerland.
- Nayyar M. M., Ashiq M. and Ahmad J. 2001. Manual on Punjab weeds (Part I). Directorate of Agronomy. Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad Pakistan.

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